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Pencil Structure Arrangement

As the pencil is the main component of graphite, and graphite is the conductor, so the pencil lead can be conductive. However, the conductivity of the pencil lead is not very strong. Pencil Because the arrangement of graphite atoms, it is only two-dimensional conductivity, that is, in the same plane between the two points is conductive, and the plane between the upper and lower sides is not conductive. Pencil The graphite in the pencil core is crushed and then mixed with clay, so the atomic structure is disrupted, so the conductivity is not very outstanding. In the experiment, access to 2B pencil lead length of more than 15CM, the small light bulb does not light.

Graphite and diamond are chemical elements of the carbon family of buddies, are composed of the same carbon atoms. However, graphite and black and soft, Pencil diamond is crystal clear, extremely hard. Buddies are called "soft brother" and "hard brother", temperament is really a world of difference. What is the reason for this? Originally, in the graphite, the carbon atoms are arranged in layers, the carbon atoms in the same layer hand in hand, closely connected; layer and layer between the loose but loose, like a snack card, Pencil gently push , Between the card and the card on the slide open, scattered on paper, leaving a little bit of ink marks.

The carbon atoms in the diamond are like steel bars, and the knots are tightly packed together to shake it and make it change the shape. It is very difficult. Therefore, Pencil the diamond is hard and strong, won the "King of hardness" of the title. Like diamond and graphite, the ingredients are the same chemical elements, looks and temper are very different, chemists call them "allotrope". You probably remember, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, the same chemical element phosphorus, the nature is very different. They are phosphorus "allotrope". In addition to graphite and diamonds, there are also amorphous carbon in the allotrope of carbon, Pencil such as smoke. It is the same as graphite, but also our culture is a good helper. For example, the brush ink is made of smoke or carbon black suspended in the water containing the glue material.

Now the pencil does not contain lead, Pencil but made of graphite and clay, the reason why this is called, is due to its historical evolution caused.

Ancient Greece and Rome have made lead rods of metal pencils. Pencil They are mostly conical, with other objects after leaving the traces of lead, used to mark the mark.

In the 14th century, there was a similar pencil in Europe.

In 1565, the United Kingdom began to graphite as a refill, Pencil hand-made the most original wooden pencil.

In 1662, Germany built the world's first pencil factory.

1790 ~ 1793, the French Kant used clay will be made of graphite refills, laid a modern pencil industrial base. In the pencil pen on the usually have a hardness mark, h said hard pencil, Pencil the greater the number of the front of the greater hardness: b that soft pencil, Pencil the front of the larger number of the more soft core. Hb is a soft and hard pencil, suitable for daily writing purposes.


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